FREEDOM OF INFORMATION COMMISSION
OF THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT

In the Matter of a Complaint by FINAL DECISION

Richard Simons and the Yale Police

Benevolent Association,

 
  Complainants  
  against   Docket #FIC 2009-469
Chief, Police Department, Yale
University; and Police Department,
Yale University,
  Respondents August 11, 2010
       

 

The above-captioned matter was heard as a contested case on November 4, 2009, at which time the complainants and the respondents appeared, stipulated to certain facts and presented testimony, exhibits and argument on the complaint.  A Report of Hearing Officer, dated July 12, 2010, was considered by the Commission at its regular meeting of July 28, 2010.  At such time, the Commission remanded the matter to the Hearing Officer to conduct a second hearing in order to give the parties an opportunity to present evidence and argument on the following issues:  whether the findings and conclusions of the Commission’s final decision in Docket #FIC 2007-370; Janet R. Perrotti and State of Connecticut, Office of the Public Defender v. Chief, Police Department, Yale University; (Feb. 13, 2008) (hereinafter “Perrotti”) should be incorporated into the final decision in this matter; to whom was the request at issue in this matter made; was the request in this matter for a personnel file; and whether the Perkins test applies in this matter.  Such second hearing occurred on August 2, 2010, at which time the complainants and the respondents again appeared, stipulated to certain facts and presented testimony, exhibits and argument on the complaint.

 

After consideration of the entire record, the following facts are found and conclusions of law are reached:

 

1.  It is found that, by letters dated July 24, 2009 and July 31, 2009, the complainants requested copies of the following information from the respondent chief and the respondent department:

 

a.       For fiscal year 2008, “any and all documentation related to wages, salaries, compensation and benefit packages, including but not limited to base salary, overtime payments, meal money, use of department vehicles and fuel paid for by Yale University; for the following positions within the Yale University Police Department, Chief of Police, Assistant Chief of Police, Administrative lieutenant(s), Patrol Coordinator Lieutenant(s), Training Coordinator(s), Shift Lieutenant supervisors, Investigative Services Sergeant(s), Communications Coordinator Sergeant(s) and Patrol Sergeants;”

 

b.      “Capital expenditures/acquisitions for fiscal years 2008 and 2009; including but not limited to: vehicles (including motorcycles, bicycles and Segway(s), firearms (handguns and long guns), ammunition, radio equipment, computer equipment (MDTs, ‘911 Data’ mobile video systems, laptops and desktops) and tactical equipment (bullet-proof vests, helmets, entry tools, hazardous devices equipment, etc.);” and

 

c.       “Yale Police Department budgets for fiscal years 2008 and 2009.”

 

(hereinafter the “requested records”).

 

2.  By letter dated and filed with the Commission on August 14, 2009, the complainants appealed to the Commission, alleging that the respondents violated the Freedom of Information (hereinafter “FOI”) Act by failing to provide the complainants with the requested records described in paragraph 1, above.

           

            3.  Subsequent to the filing of the complaint, the parties exchanged correspondence.  Specifically, it is found that, by letter dated August 21, 2009, the respondents denied the complainants’ requests for the records described in paragraph 1.a., above, stating that the “University is a private employer, and confidential information about its employees’ salary and benefits is not subject to disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).”

 

4.  It is found that, by letter dated September 11, 2009, the complainants reiterated their request to the respondents for the documents described in paragraph 1.a., above, and maintained that the Yale University Police Department (hereinafter “YUPD”) is a public agency under the FOI Act.

 

5.  It is found that, by letter dated October 30, 2009, the respondents obtained documents responsive to the complainants’ requests described in paragraphs 1.b. and 1.c., above, from the Budget Director of Yale University, and provided the complainants with copies of such documents.  However, the respondents maintained their position that the requested records described in paragraph 1.a., above, pertaining to University employees’ salary and benefits, are not subject to disclosure under the FOI Act.

 

6.  The complainants contend that the Commission previously concluded that the YUPD is the functional equivalent of a public agency under 1-200(1), G.S., in paragraph 39 of the final decision in Perrotti.  The complainants, therefore, contend that the records described in paragraph 1, above, are public records under 1-200(5), G.S., subject to disclosure under the FOI Act.  With respect to employee compensation records, the complainants contend that they are not requesting the names of the YUPD employees working in the listed positions, just the salaries of the requested non-union positions.

 

7.  The respondents concede that, based on the Commission’s final decision in Perrotti, they are public agencies with respect to their law enforcement functions.  The respondents, however, also contend that the question before the Commission is whether the requested records in this matter relate to the respondents’ law enforcement functions.  The respondents contend that the requested employee salary and benefit records at issue are distinguishable from the records in Perrotti.  The respondents also contend that, while they voluntarily provided the complainants with the records described in paragraphs 1.b. and 1.c., above, they were not required to produce such records under the FOI Act.  As to the records described in paragraph 1.a., above, the respondents repeat their claim that Yale University is a private employer, and “confidential information about its employees’ salary and benefits” is not subject to disclosure under the FOI Act since such information does not relate to the YUPD’s law enforcement functions.

 

8.  At the hearing on this matter and in its post-hearing brief, the respondents contend that the criteria set forth in Board of Trustees of Woodstock Academy v. FOI Commission, 181 Conn. 544 (1980) must be applied anew, in the context of the facts in this contested case.  The Commission is not convinced that the law requires application of the functional equivalence test with respect to each request for records. 

 

9.  The first issue before the Commission is whether the YUPD is a public agency, within the meaning of 1-200(1)(B), G.S., which in part defines “public agency” to mean: “Any person to the extent such person is deemed to be the functional equivalent of a public agency pursuant to law… .”            [Emphasis added.]

 

10.  The Commission hereby incorporates into this final decision the findings and conclusions of Perrotti.  In such final decision the Commission employed the functional equivalence test set forth in Board of Trustees of Woodstock Academy v. FOI Commission, 181 Conn. 544 (1980).  The Commission concluded that the YUPD is a public agency within the meaning of 1-200(1)(B), G.S., based on the application of the Woodstock criteria to the specific facts and circumstances of that contested case, which involved a request for copies of the personnel files of two YUPD officers.  The complainant in Perrotti, a Public Defender, sought the work histories of two YUPD officers who had arrested her client.  In Perrotti, the respondent YUPD did not claim an exemption from mandatory disclosure.

 

11.  The YUPD presents a unique set of circumstances in the Commission’s history.   Since the 1980 Supreme Court decision in Woodstock, the Commission has applied the Woodstock test to a variety of free-standing entities, such as ambulance companies, schools, beach associations, and non-profit corporations.  In Perrotti, the Commission applied the test to the YUPD, which is a department within a private university. 

 

12.  In Perrotti, the Commission did not specifically address the issue of the scope of its conclusion that the YUPD is the functional equivalent of a public agency.  However, in the past, the Commission has drawn dichotomies among records of other functional equivalents.  See, e.g., Docket #FIC1996-555; Wilbur D. Troutman v. Kenneth G. Schultz, Director, Program Management, Imagineers, LLC; and Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Social Services, Section 8 Housing Program (July 23, 1997) (concluding that corporation was the functional equivalent of a public agency only when performing the governmental function of Section 8 housing oversight); Docket #FIC1987-383; Julie Lewin v. Connecticut Humane Society (July 13, 1988) (concluding that Humane Society was the functional equivalent of a public agency to the extent that it performed activities authorized by state statutes), reversed on other grounds, Connecticut Humane Society v. FOIC, 218 Conn. 757, 758 (1991); Docket #FIC1987-103; Lawrence Orrico v. Cos Cob Volunteer Fire Co., No 1, Inc. (July 8, 1987) (concluding that volunteer fire company was the functional equivalent of a public agency when performing its governmental function of fire protection, but not when performing social or fraternal function). 

 

13.  In Perrotti, the Commission concluded that the YUPD was a public agency but also found in  paragraph 21 therein that:

 

…officers of the YUPD are employees of Yale University. It is further found that the YUPD handles all disciplinary matters concerning its employees and Yale University pays all compensation.  It is further found that YUPD officers are not members of a “paid police department” for government retirement benefits or for purposes of receiving workers’ compensation survivor benefits pursuant to 7-433b, G.S.

 

 

14.  Section 3 of P.A. 83-466, which enabled the YUPD’s current jurisdiction, provides:

 

The city of New Haven, acting through its board of police commissioners, may appoint persons designated by Yale University to act as Yale University police officers.  Such officers having duly qualified under section 7-294d of the general statutes, and having been sworn, shall have all the powers conferred upon municipal police officers for the city of New Haven.  They shall be deemed for all purposes to be agents and employees of Yale University, subject to such conditions as may be mutually agreed upon by the city of New Haven, acting through its board of police commissioners, and Yale University.

 

            [Emphasis added.]

15.  It is found that, under the terms of the Memorandum of Understanding between the City of New Haven and Yale University, which sets forth the agreement of the parties as to the police power of YUPD officers, section 3 of that agreement provides:

 

In all matters of promotion, termination, discipline and employment, personnel policies and procedures established by the University shall apply to Yale University Police Officers and shall be administered solely by the University.  Such officers shall be deemed for all purposes to be agents and employees of the University and shall be paid for their services, including while in emergency service for the City of New Haven, and receive benefits to which they are entitled by law, from the university. 

 

            16.  The complainants contend that the “federal government funded $450.9 million, or 80% of 2008 grant and contract income, in support of Yale’s research and training programs.”  The complainants also contend that Yale University is subsidized by tax exemptions from the City of New Haven, which constitute government funding to YUPD by the city.

 

17.  The respondents stipulated that Yale University receives federal research funding from the federal government.  It is found that such federal research funding is not spent on the YUPD’s budget.  It is also found that YUPD employee salaries and benefits are paid entirely through private funds of the University. 

 

18.  It is found that Yale University’s budget office sets budgetary guidelines for all Yale University departments.  It is also found that such guidelines establish criteria for expenditures and salaries of YUPD officers.  It is found that, based on budgetary guidelines, Yale University’s Director of Finance for the Office of Public Safety submits the respondents’ budgetary requests to Yale’s budget office.

 

19.  It is found that no governmental agency exerts control over the salaries and benefits of YUPD employees.  Moreover, it is also found that the YUPD does not determine the salaries and benefits of its employees; rather, it is found that such determinations are made by a private entity, Yale University, according to a university-wide salary structure. 

 

            20.  Section 1-200(5), G. S., provides:

 

“Public records or files” means any recorded data or information relating to the conduct of the public's business prepared, owned, used, received or retained by a public agency, or to which a public agency is entitled to receive a copy by law or contract under section 1-218, whether such data or information be handwritten, typed, tape-recorded, printed, photostated, photographed or recorded by any other method. 

 

                        [Emphasis added.]

 

21.  Based on the facts and circumstances of this case, it is concluded that the requested records do not relate to the conduct of the public’s business, since such records do not relate to the YUPD’s governmental function of policing, but rather relate to the salary structure of a private university. See 1-200(1)(B), G.S. (“public agency” means: “Any person to the extent such person is deemed to be the functional equivalent of a public agency pursuant to law”) (Emphasis added.); see also Fromer v. Freedom of Information Commission, 90 Conn. App. 101, 108 (2005) (concluding that University of Connecticut professor’s power point presentations are not “public records” under 1-200(5), G.S, in part because they do not relate to the conduct of the public’s business).  Accordingly, it is further concluded that such records are not public records within the meaning of 1-200(5), G.S

 

22.  Moreover, even assuming that the requested records do constitute “public records” within the meaning of 1-200(5), G.S,, the Commission makes the following findings of fact and conclusions of law.

 

23.  Section 1-210(a), G. S., provides in relevant part:

 

Except as otherwise provided by any federal law or state statute, all records maintained or kept on file by any public agency, whether or not such records are required by any law or by any rule or regulation, shall be public records and every person shall have the right to . . . receive a copy of such records in accordance with section 1-212. 

 

            24.   Section 1-212(a), G. S., provides in relevant part that “[a]ny person applying in writing shall receive, promptly upon request, a plain or certified copy of any public record.”

 

            25.  It is found that the respondents do not maintain records responsive to the request described in paragraph 1.a, above, as they relate to the respondent chief.  Accordingly, it is concluded that the respondents did not violate the FOI Act as alleged in the complaint with respect to any such records. 

 

            26.  It is further found that the only records that the respondents maintain which are arguably responsive to the request described in paragraph 1.a, above, are: 1) letters of appointment and promotion for managerial employees other than the respondent chief, which letters are maintained in such individual employees’ personnel files; and 2) copies of requests for overtime, which would contain the name, date, and hours worked, for individual managerial employees, which are maintained in a separate administrative file.  It is also found that the records described herein are kept in locked and secured locations and are not accessible to the general public.

 

            27.  The respondents contend that the records described in paragraph 26, above, are exempt from mandatory disclosure pursuant to 1-210(b)(2), G.S. 

 

            28.  Section 1-210(b)(2), G.S., provides in relevant part that nothing in the FOI Act shall require the disclosure of:  “. . . personnel or medical files and similar files the disclosure of which would constitute an invasion of personal privacy . . . .”

 

            29.  It is found that the complainants did not request personnel files, per se.  However, it is found that the requested records, to the extent that the respondents maintain them, are contained, in some part, in personnel files.  Moreover, the Commission has previously considered requests for compensation information under the Perkins test outlined below, and has found such records to be personnel or similar files, within the meaning of 1-210(b)(2), G.S., regardless of their location.  See Docket # FIC2008-053; Abbe Smith and the New Haven Register v. Chief, Police Department, Town of West Haven; and Police Department, Town of West Haven (June 25, 2008);  Docket #FIC2002-173; Carrie Campion v. Director, Department of Human Resources, Town of Fairfield (Aug. 28, 2002); Docket #FIC1999-150; Andrew Nargi v. Office of Corporation Counsel, City of Torrington; and City of Torrington.  A Perkins analysis is appropriate here. 

 

            30.  In Perkins v. Freedom of Information Commission, 228 Conn. 158, 175 (1993), the Supreme Court set forth the test for the exemption contained in 1-210(b)(2), G.S.  The claimant must first establish that the records in question are personnel, medical or similar files.  Second, the claimant must show that disclosure of the records would constitute an invasion of personal privacy.  In determining whether disclosure would constitute an invasion of personal privacy, the claimant must establish both of two elements: first, that the information sought does not pertain to legitimate matters of public concern, and second, that such information is highly offensive to a reasonable person.   The Commission takes administrative notice of the multitude of court rulings, Commission final decisions (endnote 1), and instances of advice given by the Commission and staff members (endnote 2), which have relied upon the Perkins test, since its release in 1993.

 

31.  It is found that the records described in paragraph 26, above, constitute personnel, medical, or similar files within the meaning of 1-210(b)(2), G. S.    

 

            32.  With respect to whether the records described in paragraph 26, above, pertain to a legitimate matter of public concern, it is found that, unlike public employee salaries, the YUPD officers are paid with private funds according to Yale’s university wide-salary structure; no public funds are used.  While the complainants may have need of the records for their private negotiating position in the context of an ongoing collective bargaining issue, such need does not constitute a legitimate public interest.

 

            33.  The respondents presented substantial evidence to show that the salaries of managerial positions at Yale, such as the positions at issue here, are kept confidential and that managerial employees have a high expectation that such salaries will not be disseminated to the general public. 

 

            34.  Based on the unique facts and circumstances of this case, it is found that the records described in paragraph 26, above, do not pertain to legitimate matters of public concern and, if disclosed, would be highly offensive to a reasonable person.  Accordingly, it is concluded that, if the records described in paragraph 26, above, constitute public records, they are exempt from mandatory disclosure pursuant to 1-210(b)(2), G. S. 

 

            35.  Based on the facts and circumstances of this unique case, it is concluded that the respondents did not violate the FOI Act, as alleged in the complaint.

 

 

           The following order by the Commission is hereby recommended on the basis of the record concerning the above-captioned complaint:

 

1.      The complaint is dismissed.

                                                                                   

 

Approved by Order of the Freedom of Information Commission at its regular meeting of August 11, 2010.

 

 

__________________________

Petrea A. Jones

Acting Clerk of the Commission

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PURSUANT TO SECTION 4-180(c), G.S., THE FOLLOWING ARE THE NAMES OF EACH PARTY AND THE MOST RECENT MAILING ADDRESS, PROVIDED TO THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION COMMISSION, OF THE PARTIES OR THEIR AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE.

 

THE PARTIES TO THIS CONTESTED CASE ARE:

 

Richard Simons and the Yale Police

Benevolent Association

c/o Andrew N. Matthews, Esq.

PO Box 143

Willington, CT 06279

 

Chief, Police Department, Yale University

c/o Michael N. LaVelle, Esq.

Pullman & Comley, LLC

850 Main Street

Bridgeport, CT 06604

and

Jonathan E. Clune, Esq.

Associate General Counsel

Office of the Vice President and General Counsel

Yale University

PO Box 208255

New Haven, CT 06520-8255

and

Aaron S. Bayer, Esq.

Wiggin and Dana LLP

One CityPlace

185 Asylum Street

Hartford, CT 06103

 

Police Department, Yale University

c/o Jonathan E. Clune, Esq.

Associate General Counsel

Office of the Vice President and General Counsel

Yale University

PO Box 208255

New Haven, CT 06520-8255

and

Aaron S. Bayer, Esq.

Wiggin and Dana LLP

One CityPlace

185 Asylum Street

Hartford, CT 06103

 

____________________________

Petrea A. Jones

Acting Clerk of the Commission

 

FIC/2009-469FD/paj/8/12/2010

1.  ENDNOTES

 

Court cases

 

Payne v. City of Danbury, 267 Conn. 669 (2004); Director, Retirement & Benefits Services Div. v. FOIC, 256 Conn. 764 (2001); Rocque v. FOIC, 255 Conn. 651 (2001); Dept. of Public Safety v FOIC, 242 Conn. 79 (1997); Conn. Alcohol & Drug Abuse Commission v. FOIC, 233 Conn.28 (1995); Kurecza v. FOIC, 228 Conn. 271 (1994); First Selectman v. FOIC, 60 Conn. App. 64 (2000); Dept. of Children & Families v. FOIC, 48 Conn. App. 467 (1998); Almeida v. FOIC, 39 Conn. App. 154 (1995); Town of Enfield v. Freedom of Information Commission,  Super Ct JD NB CV 06 4012219 S (Cohn, J. 2007); Chairman, Board of Ethics, Town of Greenwich and Board of Ethics, Town of Greenwich v. Freedom of Information Commission and Michael Aurelia, Super Ct JD NB CV 05 400 7004 S (Owens, J. 2006); Dept. of Transportation v. FOIC, Super Ct JD NB CV 01-0508810 (Schuman, J. 2001); City Treasurer, City of Hartford v. FOIC, Super Ct JD NB CV 99 0496222 (Cohn, J. 2000); Rocque, Commissioner of Environmental Protection v. FOIC, Super Ct JD NB CV 98 0492734 (Hartmere, J. 1999); Director, Retirement & Benefits Services Div. v. FOIC, Super Ct JD NB CV 98 0492692 (Hartmere, J. 1999); First Selectman, Town of Ridgefield v. FOIC, Super Ct JD NB CV 99‑0493041 (McWeeny, J. 1999); Chairman, Bd. of Education Town of Darien v. FOIC, Super Ct JD Htfd NB CV 97 0575674 (McWeeny, J. 1998); Waters, Commissioner of State of Conn. Dept. of Administrative Services v. FOIC, Super Ct JD Htfd/NB CV 96 0565853 (McWeeny, J. 1997); Armstrong, Commissioner of State of Conn. Dept. Of Correction v. FOIC, Super Ct JD Htfd/NB CV 96 0563608 (McWeeny, J. 1997); Dept. of Children & Families v. FOIC, Super Ct JD Htfd NB CV 96 0562546 (McWeeny, J. 1997); State of Conn. Office of Protection and Advocacy for Persons with Disabilities v. FOIC, Super Ct JD Htfd/NB CV 95 0554467 (McWeeny, J. 1997); Youngquist v. FOIC, Super Ct JD Htfd/NB, CV 95 0554601 (McWeeny, J. 1996 and 1997); Cracco v. FOIC, Super Ct JD Htfd/NB, CV 94 0705371 (Dunnell, J. 1995); Cracco v. FOIC, Super Ct JD Htfd NB, CV 93 0705370, (Dunnell, J. 1995); Cracco v. FOIC, Super Ct JD Htfd NB, CV 94 0705369, (Dunnell, J. 1995); Simonds v. FOIC, Super Ct JD Htfd/NB, CV 93 070 41 39 (Maloney, J. 1994); Gallagher v. FOIC, Super Ct JD Htfd/NB, CV 93 0531514 (Maloney, J. 1994).

 

 

FOIC Decisions

 

Docket #FIC 2007-580; Town of Putnam and Putnam Board of Education v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety; and

State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety (May 28, 2008); Docket #FIC 2007-447; Daniel Mathena v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Simsbury (April 23, 2008);

Docket #FIC 2007-560; Kenneth D. Goldberg v. Executive Director, Greater Hartford

Transit District; and Greater Hartford Transit District (April 9, 2008); Docket #FIC 2007-513; Elizabeth Benton and the New Haven Register v. Chairman, Board of Commissioners, Housing Authority, Town of Derby (April 9, 2008); Docket #FIC 2007-317; James Baker v. Warden, State of Connecticut, Department of Correction, Osborn Correctional Institution (April 9, 2008); Docket #FIC 2007-221; Jon Lender and The Hartford Courant v. Executive Director, State of Connecticut, Office of State Ethics; General Counsel, State of Connecticut Office of State Ethics; Citizen’s Ethics Advisory Board, State of Connecticut, Office of State Ethics; and State of Connecticut, Office of State Ethics (March 26, 2008); Docket #FIC 2007-469; Lawrence C. Sherman v. Board of Education, West Hartford Public Schools (March 12, 2008); Docket #FIC 2007-315; Dawne Westbrook v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Correction (January 23, 2008); Docket #FIC 2007-298; Josh Kovner and the Hartford Courant v. Chief, Police Department, City of Middletown (November 14, 2007); Docket #FIC 2007-416; Junta for Progressive Action, Inc.; Unidad Latina en Accion; and The Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization v. John A. Danaher III, Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety (November 8, 2007); Docket #FIC 2006-502; David P. Taylor v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Correction (September 12, 2007); Docket #FIC 2007-123; Jessica Crowley and Isabella O’Malley v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Health (August 8, 2007); Docket #FIC 2006-467; Charlie Santiago Zapata v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Correction (August 8, 2007); Docket #FIC 2006-374; Burton Weinstein v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety (July 11, 2007); Docket # 2006-343; Stephanie Reitz and the Associated Press v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Correction (June 27, 2007); Docket #FIC 2006-098; Louis J. Russo v. Director, State of Connecticut, University of Connecticut Health Center, Office of Health Affairs Policy Planning; and Dr. Jacob Zamstein (February 28, 2007); Docket #FIC 2006-258; John Orr v. First Selectman, Town of Essex (January 24, 2007); Docket #FIC 2006-242; Ismael Hernandez III v. Director of Labor Relations, Labor Relations Office, City of Bridgeport (January 24, 2007); Docket #FIC 2006-292; Mary Ellen Fillo and The Hartford Courant v. Chief, Volunteer Fire Department, Town of Newington (January 10, 2007); Docket #FIC 2006-121; John Bolton v. Personnel Director, Civil Service Commission, City of Bridgeport; and Civil Service Commission, City of Bridgeport (December 13, 2006); Docket #FIC 2005-571; Alexander Wood and the Manchester Journal Inquirer v. Director, Human Resources Department, Town of Windsor (October 25, 2006); Docket #FIC 2005-535; Alexander Wood and The Manchester Journal-Inquirer v. Director of Human Resources, Town of Windsor (October 25, 2006); Docket #FIC 2005-511; Don Stacom and the Hartford Courant v. John Divenere, Chief, Police Department, City of Bristol (October 11, 2006); Docket #FIC 2005-508; Connecticut State Conference of NAACP Branches v. Chief, Police Department, City of Bristol (October 11, 2006); Docket #FIC 2005-478; Doreen Guarino and the Manchester Journal-Inquirer v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Enfield (September 13, 2006); Docket #FIC 2005-473; Alexander Wood, Heather Nann Collins, and the Manchester; Journal-Inquirer v. Executive Director, State of Connecticut, Board of Education; and Services for the Blind (September 13, 2006); Docket #FIC 2005-448; Susan Raff and WFSB TV v. Mayor, City of Middletown (September 13, 2006); Docket #FIC 2005-615; James E. Simpson v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Seymour (August 23, 2006); Docket #FIC 2005-436; Suzanne Risley and the Waterbury Republican-American v. Chief, Police Department, City of Torrington (August 23, 2006); Docket #FIC 2005-242; Michelle Tuccitto and The New Haven Register v. Chief, Police Department, City of New Haven (May 10, 2006); Docket #FIC 2005-096; Richard Fontana, Jr. v. Board of Fire Commissioners, West Shore Fire District (February 8, 2006); Docket #FIC 2005-058; Glenn C. Morron and William Hertler, Jr. v. J. Edward Brymer, Chief, Police Department, City of Middletown; Phillip Pessina, Deputy Chief, Police Department, City of Middletown; and Lyn Baldoni, Deputy Chief, Police Department, City of Middletown (January 25, 2006);  Docket #FIC 2005-081; Megan Bard and the New London Day v. Superintendent of Schools, Canterbury Public Schools; and Board of Education, Canterbury Public Schools (October 26, 2005); Docket #FIC 2004-289; Lisa A. Coleman v. Chief, Police Department, Town of New Milford (June 22, 2005); Docket #FIC 2004-408; Michael Aurelia v. Chairman, Board of Ethics, Town of Greenwich; and Board of Ethics, Town of Greenwich (May 11, 2005); Docket #FIC 2004-197; Maria McKeon v. Town Manager, Town of Hebron (March 23, 2005); Docket #FIC 2004-159; Jason L. McCoy v. Town Manager, Town of Rocky Hill (March 23, 2005); Docket #FIC 2004-119; Dawne Westbrook v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Rocky Hill; and Robert Catania (February 9, 2005); Docket #FIC 2004-092; Dan Levine v. Public Information Officer, Police Department, City of Hartford (February 9, 2005);

Docket #FIC 2004-005; Ralph W. Williams Jr. and The Manchester Journal Inquirer v. State Connecticut, Office of the Governor (Oct. 13, 2004); Docket #FIC 2003-456; Thomas O’Brien v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Waterford (Oct. 13, 2004); Docket #FIC 2003-454; Michael C. Bingham and Business New Haven v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Banking (Sept. 22, 2004); Docket #FIC 2003-382; Michael J. McMullen v. Town Administrator, Town of Vernon (Sep. 22, 2004); Docket #FIC 2004-100; Jerry Romaniello and the Greenwich Firefighters Association v. First Selectman, Town of Greenwich (Sept. 8, 2004); Docket #FIC 2003-348; Alexander Wood and the Journal Inquirer, v. Town Manager, Town of South Windsor (Sep. 8, 2004); Docket #FIC 2003-386; Mathew L. Brown and the Willimantic Chronicle, v. President and Chief Executive Officer, Windham Mills Development Corp. (Aug. 11, 2004); Docket #FIC 2003-285; Frank C. Violissi, Jr. v. First Selectman, Town of Chester (May 26, 2004); Docket #FIC 2003-074; Heather M. Henderson v. State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety, Legal Affairs Department (Dec. 10, 2003); Docket #FIC 2003-020; Hugh Curran v. Mayor, City of Waterbury (Sept. 10, 2003); Docket #FIC 2002-580; Ken Byron and The Hartford Courant v. First Selectman, Town of Westbrook (Sept. 10, 2003); Docket #FIC 2003-038 Chris Dehnel and The Journal Inquirer v.  First Selectman, Town of Ellington (Aug. 27, 2003); Docket #FIC 2002-531Chris Dehnel and Journal Inquirer First Selectman, Town of Ellington (Aug. 27, 2003); Docket #FIC 2003-055; Robert Mack v. Director, State of Connecticut, Department of Correction, Labor Relations (July 23, 2003); Docket #FIC 2002-345; Josh Kovner, Chris Keating, and The Hartford Courant v. Chief, Police Department, City of Middletown (July 23, 2003); Docket #FIC 2002-338; Amy L. Zitka and The Middletown Press v. Chief, Police Department, City of Middletown; and Professional Standards Unit Supervisor, Police Department, City of Middletown (July 23, 2003); Docket #FIC 2002-465; Fred Radford v. Chairman, Police Commission, Town of Trumbull; and Chief, Police Department, Town of Trumbull (July 9, 2003); Docket #FIC 2002-118; Kimberly W. Moy and the Hartford Courant v. Superintendent of Schools, Southington Public Schools (Feb. 26, 2003); Docket #FIC 2002-020; Maurice Timothy Reidy and The Hartford Courant v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Newington and Brendan Fitzgerald (Oct. 23, 2002); Docket #FIC 2001-489 Jonathan Kellogg, Trip Jennings and Waterbury Republican-American Chief, Police Department, Borough of Naugatuck and Rick Smolicz (Sept. 25, 2002); Docket #FIC 2002-173; Carrie J. Campion v. Director, Department of Human Resources, Town of Fairfield (Aug. 28, 2002); Docket #FIC 2001-425 Joseph Mincewicz, Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety, Division of State Police; and State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety, Division of State Police (Aug. 28, 2002); Docket #FIC 2001-421 Jean M. Morningstar and University Health Professionals Local 3837, AFT-CFEPE, AFL-CIO v. Executive Vice President for Health Affairs, State of Connecticut, University of Connecticut Health Center; and State of Connecticut, University of Connecticut Health Center; and Justin Radolf, M.D., Director, Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, School of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center (Aug. 28, 2002); Docket #FIC 2002-093 Sean P. Turpin v. Director, Department of Human Resources, Town of Greenwich and Steve Demetri (July 24, 2002); Docket #FIC 2002-034; MariAn Gail Brown, Michael P. Mayko and Connecticut Post Michael Lupkas, Comptroller, City of Bridgeport; Christopher Duby, Chief of Staff, City of Bridgeport; Mark Anastasi, City Attorney, City of Bridgeport; and Gregory Conte, Deputy Chief of Staff, City of Bridgeport (June 26, 2002); Docket #FIC 2001-364; Karen Guzman and The Hartford Courant v. City of New Britain Docket (June 26, 2002); Docket #FIC 2001-180 James H. Smith and The Record Journal Publishing Company v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety, Division of State Police; and State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety, Division of State Police (Feb. 13, 2002); Docket #FIC 2001-129; Kimberly W. Moy and The Hartford Courant v. Police Commission, Town of Southington (Feb. 13, 2002); Docket #FIC 2001-251 Fred Radford v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Trumbull (Jan. 23, 2002); Docket #FIC 2000-624; Eric Gustavson v. Board of Education, Brookfield Public Schools (June 13, 2001); Docket #FIC 2000-557; Wendy John v. Richard Blumenthal, Attorney General, State of Connecticut, Office of the Attorney General; Wil Gundling, William McCullough, Phillip Schulz, Margaret Chapple, Assistant Attorneys General, State of Connecticut, Office of the Attorney General; and State of Connecticut, Office of the Attorney General (June 13, 2001); Docket #FIC 2000-268; Michael Costanza and The Day v. Director of Utilities, Utilities Department, City of Groton; and Mayor, City of Groton (April 25, 2001); Docket #FIC 2000-198; William J. Stone v. Personnel Administrator, State of Connecticut, Department of Transportation, Bureau of Finance and Administration; and State of Connecticut, Department of Transportation (April 20, 2001); Docket #FIC 2000-537; James Leonard, Jr. v. Chief, Police Department, City of New Britain (March 28, 2001); Docket #FIC 2000-348; Bradshaw Smith v. Office of the Vice Chancellor for Information Services, State of Connecticut, University of Connecticut; and State of Connecticut, University of Connecticut (February 28, 2001); Docket #FIC 2000-474; Robert H. Boone and Journal Inquirer v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Windsor Locks (Jan. 24, 2001); Docket #FIC 2000-265; Lisa Goldberg and The Hartford Courant v. Superintendent of Schools, Vernon Public Schools (Jan. 24, 2001); Docket #FIC 2000-569; Mary Hyde v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Seymour (Dec. 13, 2000); Docket #FIC 2000-049; Nicholas B. Wynnick v. Board of Directors, Ansonia Public Library, Town of Ansonia (Dec. 13, 2000); Docket #FIC 2000-136; Thomas E. Lee v. Board of Education, Trumbull Public Schools; and Superintendent of Schools, Trumbull Public Schools (Nov. 29, 2000); Docket #FIC 2000-135; Thomas E. Lee v. Board of Education, Trumbull Public Schools; and Superintendent of Schools, Trumbull Public Schools (Nov. 29, 2000); Docket #FIC2000-086; Mitchell D. Poudrier v. Superintendent of Schools, Killingly Public Schools (Sept. 13, 2000); Docket #FIC 2000-173; Robert H. Boone and the Journal Inquirer v. Anthony Milano, District Manager, Metropolitan District Commission; and Metropolitan District Commission (Aug. 23, 2000); Docket #FIC 2000-094; James D. Goodwin v. Communications Specialist, State of Connecticut, Department of Social Services, Public and Government Relations Unit (Aug. 9, 2000); Docket #FIC 2000-022; Thedress Campbell v. City Treasurer, City of Hartford (Aug. 9, 2000); Docket #FIC 2000-137; Robert H. Boone and Journal Inquirer v. Metropolitan District Commission (July 12, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-560; Leo F. Smith v. Robert H. Skinner, First Selectman, Town of Suffield; and Selectmen’s Office, Town of Suffield (July 12, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-556; Delores Annicelli v. Director, New Haven Housing Authority, City of New Haven; and New Haven Housing Authority, City of New Haven (July 12, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-548; Leo F. Smith v. John P. Lange, Human Resources Director, Town of Suffield; and Department of Human Resources, Town of Suffield (July 12, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-547; Leo F. Smith v. John P. Lange, Human Resources Director, Town of Suffield; and Department of Human Resources, Town of Suffield (July 12, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-525; Leo F. Smith v. John P. Lange, Human Resources Director, Town of Suffield; and Department of Human Resources, Town of Suffield (July 12, 2000); Docket #FIC 2000-118; Elizabeth Ganga and Connecticut Post v. Police Department, Town of Stratford (June 28, 2000); Docket #FIC 2000-095; Ron Robillard and the Chronicle v. Chairman, Board of Education, Eastford Public Schools; and Board of Education, Eastford Public Schools (June 28, 2000); Docket #FIC 2000-093; Megan J. Bard and The Norwich Bulletin v. Chairman, Board of Education, Eastford Public Schools; and Board of Education, Eastford Public Schools (June 28, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-575; Bruce Kaz v. Robert Skinner, First Selectman, Town of Suffield; and Ted Flanders, Building Inspector, Town of Suffield (June 28, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-519; Robert J. Fortier v. Personnel Director, Town of East Hartford; and Mayor, Town of East Hartford (June 14, 2000); Docket #FIC1999-550; James and Susanne Milewski v. Deputy Chief, Police Department, Town of Clinton; and Police Department, Town of Clinton (May 24, 2000); Docket #FIC 2000-005; Fred B. Feins v. President and Chief Executive Officer, Granby Ambulance Association, Inc., Town of Granby (May 10, 2000); Docket #FIC1999-606; Robert L. Corraro and IBEW Local 90 v. Town Attorney, Town of Hamden; and Electrical Contractors, Inc. (May 10, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-533; Donald J. Lanouette, Jr. v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Madison; and Police Department, Town of Madison (April 26, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-502; Christopher Hoffman and New Haven Register v. Director of Personnel, State of Connecticut, Southern Connecticut State University; and Personnel Office, State of Connecticut, Southern Connecticut State University (April 26, 2000); Docket #FIC1999-440; Anne Hamilton and The Hartford Courant James Martino, Chief, Police Department, Town of Avon; Peter A. Agnesi, Lieutenant, Police Department, Town of Avon; and Police Department, Town of Avon (March 8, 2000); Docket #FIC1999-333; Lynn Fredricksen and New Haven Register v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Madison; and Police Department, Town of Madison (March 8, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-289; Thomas Moran v. Director, Human Resources, Town of Simsbury; and Department of Human Resources, Town of Simsbury (Feb. 9, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-328; Victor Zigmund v. Director, State of Connecticut, Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, Human Resources Operations, Connecticut Valley Hospital, Whiting Forensic Division (Jan. 26, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-100; Janice D’Arcy and The Hartford Courant v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Cheshire; Police Department, Town of Cheshire; Town Manager, Town of Cheshire; and Town of Cheshire (Jan. 26, 2000); Docket #FIC 1999-355; Wayne Mercier v. Patricia C. Washington, Director of Personnel, City of Hartford; and Department of Personnel, City of Hartford (Nov. 10, 1999); Docket #FIC 1998-391; Jonathan F. Kellogg and The Republican American v. Department of Education, City of Waterbury (Oct. 13, 1999); Docket #FIC 1999-161; Michael W. Cahill v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Hamden; and Police Department, Town of Hamden (Sept. 22, 1999); Docket #FIC 1998-294; Robert J. Bourne v. Department of Public Utilities, City of Norwich, and City of Norwich (Sept. 22, 1999); Docket #FIC 1998-293; Joseph J. Cassidy v. Department of Public Utilities, City of Norwich, and City of Norwich (Sept. 22, 1999); Docket #FIC 1999-040; Judith F. Machuga and State of Connecticut, Division of Public Defender Services, Superior Court, G.A. 13 v. Chief, Police Department, Town of East Windsor; and Police Department, Town of East Windsor (Aug. 25, 1999); Docket #FIC 1999-144; Robert H. Boone and Journal Inquirer v. William Gifford, Chief, Police Department, Town of Windsor Locks; Police Department, Town of Windsor Locks; and Windsor Locks Police Commission (July 28, 1999); Docket #FIC 1999-096; Paul Marks and The Hartford Courant v. Chief, Police Department, Town of Windsor Locks; and Police Department, Town of Windsor Locks (July 28, 1999); Docket #FIC 1999-064; Joan Coe v. First Selectman, Town of Simsbury; Director, Human Resources Department, Town of Simsbury; and Town of Simsbury (July 28, 1999); Docket #FIC 1999-150; Andrew Nargi v. Office of Corporation Counsel, City of Torrington; and City of Torrington (July 14, 1999); Docket #FIC 1999-135; Warren Woodberry, Jr. and The Hartford Courant v. Acting Town Manager, Town of Rocky Hill and Town of Rocky Hill (July 14, 1999); Docket #FIC 1999-015; Richard Manuel Rivera v. Superintendent of Schools, Torrington Public Schools; and Board of Education, Torrington Public Schools (June 9, 1999); Docket #FIC 1998-372; William C. Kaempffer and New Haven Register v. Police Department, City of New Haven; City of New Haven; and James Sorrentino (June 9, 1999); Docket #FIC 1997-361; Docket #FIC 1999-019; David K. Jaffe v. State of Connecticut, Connecticut Lottery Corporation, Human Resources; State of Connecticut, Connecticut Lottery Corporation, Security Division; and State of Connecticut, Connecticut Lottery Corporation (April 28, 1999); Docket #FIC1998-325; Virginia Groark and The Day v. Freedom of Information Officer, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Health, Office of Special Services, Communications Division; and Agency Personnel Administrator, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Health, Human Resources Division (April 28, 1999); Docket #FIC 1998-208; Thedress Campbell v. City Treasurer, City of Hartford; and City of Hartford (April 14, 1999); Docket #FIC 1998-265; Benjamin M. Wenograd and Service Employees International Union Local 760 v. John Roughan, Executive Director, East Hartford Housing Authority; and East Hartford Housing Authority, Town of East Hartford (March 24, 1999); Docket #FIC 1997-361; Dominick L. Santarsiero v. Director, Human Resources, City of Stamford (June 10, 1998); Docket #FIC 1997-363; Diana R. Raczkowski v. Mayor, Town of Naugatuck (March 11, 1998); Docket #FIC 1997-307; Krystin Bratina v. Chief, Hartford Fire Department, City of Hartford (March 11, 1998); Docket #FIC 1998-288; Christian Miller and the New Haven Register v. Superintendent, Branford Public Schools; and Board of Education, Branford Public Schools (Feb. 24, 1999); Docket #FIC 1998-255; Joan O’Rourke v. Chief, Police Department, City of Torrington; and Police Department, City of Torrington (Jan. 27, 1999); Docket #FIC 1998-251; John Ward v. Beverly L. Durante, Personnel Administrator, Housatonic Area Regional Transit; and Housatonic Area Regional Transit (Jan. 27, 1999); Docket #FIC 1998-163; Lawrence A. Butts v. Director, State of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection, Human Resources Division; and State of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection, Human Resources Division (Dec. 9, 1998); Docket #FIC 1998-162; Lawrence A. Butts Chairperson, State of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection, Human Resources Division; and State of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection, Human Resources Division (Dec. 9, 1998); Docket #FIC 1998-232; Scott Clark, Amy Kertesz, Michael Gates and the Ridgefield Police Union v. First Selectman, Town of Ridgefield; and Town of Ridgefield (Nov. 18, 1998); Docket #FIC 1998-193; Daniel P. Jones and The Hartford Courant v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection; and State of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection (Nov. 18, 1998); Docket #FIC 1998-121; Ernie Cantwell and International Association of Firefighters, Local No. 1073 v. Director, Personnel Department, City of Middletown and Personnel Department, City of Middletown (Oct. 14, 1998); Docket #FIC 1998-120; Ernie Cantwell and International Association of Firefighters, Local No. 1073 v. Director, Personnel Department, City of Middletown (Oct. 14, 1998); Docket #FIC 1998‑094; Janice D'Arcy and The Hartford Courant v. Chief, Meriden Police Department, City of Meriden and Meriden Police Department (Oct. 14, 1998); Docket #FIC 1997-422; Joseph A. Johnson, Jr. and Greenwich Time v. Chief, Greenwich Police Department, Town of Greenwich; and Greenwich Police Department, Town of Greenwich (Sept. 9, 1998); Docket #FIC 1998-023; Deborah Maynard v. Superintendent, Voluntown School District; and Principal, Voluntown Elementary School, Voluntown School District (Aug. 12, 1998); Docket #FIC 1997-298; Allan Drury and The New Haven Register v. Chief, East Haven Police Department, Town of East Haven; and Town of East Haven (June 10, 1998); Jonathan Lucas and Greenwich Times v. Director, Department of Human Resources, Town of Greenwich; and Town of Greenwich (May 27, 1998); John C. Rettman v. Meriden Police Department, Internal Affairs Division; and Paul Rowen (May 13, 1998); Docket #FIC 1997-318; Dennis Carnot v. Chief, Meriden Police Department, City of Meriden; Internal Affairs Division, Meriden Police Department, City of Meriden; Meriden Police Department, City of Meriden; and Paul Rowen (May 13, 1998); Docket #FIC 1997-175; Matthew Brown, Ken Byron and The Hartford Courant v. Superintendent of Schools, Plymouth Public Schools; and Board of Education, Town of Plymouth (February 18, 1998); Docket #FIC 1997-123; John Christoffersen and The Advocate v. Superintendent of Schools, Stamford Public Schools and Director of Personnel, Stamford Public Schools (Feb. 11, 1998); Docket #FIC 1997-088; John B. Harkins v. Acting Town Manager, Town of Tolland (Jan. 28, 1998); Docket #FIC 1997-085; Joe Johnson and Greenwich Time v. Chief of Police, Greenwich Police Department (Jan. 28, 1998); Docket #FIC 1997-142; Laura Amon v. Program Manager, Affirmative Action Division, State of Connecticut, Department of Transportation (Dec. 3, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-572; Ken Byron and The Hartford Courant v. Chief of Police, Town of Wethersfield (Nov. 12, 1997); Docket #FIC 1997-238; Kimberley A. Thomsen and the Republican-American v. Acting Superintendent, Waterbury Police Department (Oct. 29, 1997); Docket #FIC 1997-089; Steven Edelman v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Mental Retardation; and State of Connecticut, Department of Mental Retardation (Oct. 22, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-551; Judith A. Amato v. Executive Director, New Britain Housing Authority; and New Britain Housing Authority (Aug. 27, 1997); Docket # FIC 1996-539; Ann Marie Derwin v. Legal Advisor, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety; and State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety (Aug. 27, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-592; Francine Karp v. Mayor, City of Bristol; Director of Personnel, City of Bristol; and Dennis Daigneault (July 23, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-243; Joanne C. Tashjian v. Personnel Officer, State of Connecticut, Workers’ Compensation Commission; and State of Connecticut, Workers’ Compensation Commission (June 4, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-322;Carolyn Moreau and The Hartford Courant v. Chief of Police, Southington Police Department; and Susan Williams (May 28, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-465; John Gauger, Jr., Joseph Cadrain and Richard Westervelt v. Kenneth H. Kirschner, Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety; Dawn Carnese, Legal Advisor, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety; and Lt. David Werner, Commanding Officer, Troop "B", State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety, Division of State Police (April 9, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-315; David W. Cummings v. Christopher Burnham, Treasurer, State of Connecticut (April 9, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-521; Carol Butterworth v. Town Council, Town of Tolland (March 26, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-421; John B. Harkins v. Chairman, Tolland Town Council (March 26, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-314; David W. Cummings v. Christopher Burnham, Treasurer, State of Connecticut (April 9, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-119; David W. Cummings v. Jesse M. Frankl, Chairman, State of Connecticut, Workers’ Compensation Commission (March 26, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-215; Alice M. Gray v. Chief of Police, Manchester Police Department, and Assistant Town Attorney, Town of Manchester (Feb. 26, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-159; Carolyn Moreau and The Hartford Courant v. Police Chief, Southington Police Department (Jan. 22, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-124; Donald H. Schiller, Michael Kelley and The Record-Journal Publishing Company v. Police Chief, Town of Southington Police Department, and Town of Southington Police Department (Jan. 22, 1997); Docket #FIC 1996-134; Betty Halibozek v. Superintendent of Schools, Middletown Public Schools; and Supervisor of Maintenance and Transportation, Board of Education, City of Middletown (Dec. 11, 1996); Docket #FIC1996-006; Joseph Cadrain and Richard Westervelt v. Gerald Gore, Legal Affairs Unit, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety; and State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety, Division of State Police (Dec. 11, 1996); Docket #FIC 1996-153; Tracey Thomas and The Hartford Courant v. Legal Affairs Unit, State of Connecticut, Department of Public Safety (Nov. 20, 1996); Docket #FIC1995-419; Robie Irizarry v. Warden, Willard Correctional Institution, State of Connecticut, Department of Correction (Oct. 23, 1996); Docket #FIC 1995-368; Thomas Lally v. Executive Director, State of Connecticut Board of Education and Services for the Blind, and Special Projects Coordinator, State of Connecticut, Board of Education and Services for the Blind (Oct. 9, 1996); Docket #FIC 1995-403; Jesse C. Leavenworth and The Hartford Courant v. Superintendent of Schools, Regional School District #7 (Sept. 25, 1996); Docket #FIC 1995-361; Christopher Hoffman and the New Haven Register v. James J. McGrath, Chief of Police, Ansonia Police Department and Eugene K. Baron, Brian Phipps, and Howard Tinney as members of the Ansonia Board of Police Commissioners (Sept. 25, 1996); Docket #FIC1995-358; Lyn Bixby and The Hartford Courant v. State of Connecticut, Department of Administrative Services (Sept. 25, 1996); Docket #FIC 1996-056; Francine Cimino v. Chief of Police, Glastonbury Police Department; Town Manager, Town of Glastonbury; and Town of Glastonbury (Sept. 25, 1996); Docket #FIC 1995-343; John J. Woodcock, III v. Town Manager, Town of South Windsor (July 24, 1996); Docket #FIC 1995-324; John J. Woodcock, III and Kathryn A. Hale v. Dana Whitman, Jr., Acting Town Manager, Town of South Windsor (July 24, 1996); Docket #FIC 95-251; Lyn Bixby & The Hartford Courant v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Correction (July 10, 1996); Docket #FIC 1995-252; Valerie Finholm and The Hartford Courant v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Children and Families (May 22, 1996); Docket #FIC 1995-193; Terence P. Sexton v. Chief of Police, Hartford Police Department (May 8, 1996); Docket #FIC 1995-125; Chris Powell and Journal Inquirer v. Commissioner, State of Connecticut, Department of Social Services (March 13, 1996); Docket #FIC 1995-081; Bruce Bellm, Kendres Lally, Philip Cater, Peter Hughes, Carol Northrop, Brad Pellissier, Todd Higgins and Bruce Garrison v. State of Connecticut, Office of Protection and Advocacy for Persons with Disabilities, Sharon Story and Marlene Fein (March 13, 1996); Docket #FIC 1995-074; Jeffrey C. Cole and WFSB/TV 3 v. James Strillacci, Chief of Police, West Hartford Police Department (Jan. 24, 1996); Docket #FIC 1995-026; Curtis R. Wood v. Director of Affirmative Action, State of Connecticut, Department of Correction (Jan. 24, 1996); Docket #FIC 1995-132; Michael A. Ingrassia v. Warden, Walker Special Management Unit, State of Connecticut Department of Correction (Dec. 27, 1995); Docket #FIC 1995-048; Jane Holfelder v. Canton Police Department (June 14, 1995); Docket #FIC 1994-351; Edward A. Peruta v. O. Paul Shew, Rocky Hill Town Manager and Director of Public Safety; Donald Unwin, Mayor of Rocky Hill, William Pacelia, Deputy Mayor of Rocky Hill; and Curt Roggi, Rocky Hill Town Attorney (May 28, 1995); Docket #FIC 1994-160; John Springer and The Bristol Press v. Chief of Police, Bristol Police Department (April 5, 1995); Docket #FIC 1994-077; Kathryn Kranhold and The Hartford Courant v. Director, New Haven Health Department (Feb. 8, 1995); Docket #FIC 1994-099; Frank Faraci, Jr. v. Middletown Police Department, Mayor of Middletown, and Middletown City Attorney (Feb. 2, 1995); Docket #FIC 1994-011; Robert Grabar, Edward Frede and The News-Times v. Superintendent of Schools, Brookfield Public Schools and Brookfield Board of Education (Aug. 24, 1994); Docket #FIC 1993-279; Jay Lewin v. New Milford Director of Finance (March 23, 1994).


 

                          2.  ENDNOTES

 

 

AFFIDAVIT OF ERIC V. TURNER

 

Eric V. Turner, having been duly sworn, does hereby depose as follows:

 

1.  I am over the age of eighteen (18) years and understand the obligation of an affirmation.

 

2.  I am a member of the Connecticut Bar and am currently employed as Director of Public Education for the Connecticut Freedom of Information Commission, having first been employed by said commission in 1996.

 

3.  I am providing this affidavit in light of the Supreme Court decision in Director, Retirement & Benefits Services Division v. Freedom of Information Commission, 256 Conn. 764 (2001), in which the court apparently invites a reconsideration of Perkins v. Freedom of Information Commission, 228 Conn. 158 (1993).  See, Director, supra at 782, fn 13, 785 (Zarella, J. concurring).

 

4.  As part of my responsibilities as Director of Public Education for said commission, I have developed, organized and scheduled speaking engagements, seminars and programs explaining the duties and rights established under the Connecticut Freedom of Information Act.

 

5.  Since I assumed my current position in 1996, there have been approximately 290 such speaking engagements, seminars and programs in Connecticut and I have personally lectured in approximately 80 such speaking engagements, seminars and programs.

 

6.  As part of the presentation I have prepared for such speaking engagements, seminars and programs, the subject of the Connecticut General Statues Section 1-210(b)(2) exemption for personnel, medical and similar files the disclosure of which would constitute an invasion of personal privacy is stressed because of the great interest in that exemption and the confusion generated by a series of inconsistent and contradictory court decisions prior to Perkins, supra.  See, e.g., Chairman v. Freedom of Information Commission, 217 Conn. 193 (1991) (establishing “reasonable expectation of privacy” test; query whether subjectively or objectively applied) and Board of Education v. Freedom of Information Commission, 210 Conn. 590 (1989) (confirming a “balancing” test), which was overruled by the Chairman case.

 

7.  Since the Supreme Court ruling in Perkins, supra, all Freedom of Information Commission staff members who conduct such speaking engagements, seminars and programs discuss in detail the rulings in that case and its progeny.

 

8.  As part of my responsibilities as Director of Public Education, I also answer telephone and other inquiries from public officials and the public.  Since my employment with said commission, I have answered thousands of such inquiries, including hundreds of inquiries concerning the Connecticut General Statutes Section 1-210(b)(2) exemption.  In responding to such inquiries I discuss in detail the Perkins case and its progeny.

 

9.  Based on the foregoing experiences, it is my opinion that the Perkins decision, and its progeny, have had a beneficial effect on public officials and the public itself because they can rely on a now long-standing and clear test with respect to the Connecticut General Statutes Section 1-210(b)(2) exemption, which helps them determine whether that exemption is applicable to the practical problems they encounter with respect to personnel, medical and similar information.  Indeed, the many court and Freedom of Information Commission decisions applying the Perkins test have given public officials and the public a now consistent body of law concerning that statutory exemption.

 

 

evt

Eric V. Turner

 

 

 

COUNTY OF HARTFORD

                                                            ss:  Hartford

STATE OF CONNECTICUT

 

Subscribed and attested to before me this 9th day of January, 2002.

 

 

 

mwp

Mitchell W. Pearlman

Commissioner of the Superior Court